心理学实验的设计与报告(第3版,英文版)

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内容简介: 许多心理学课程都要求学生们设计实验、撰写实
验报告或研究报告。这本由彼得·哈里斯著的《心理
学实验的设计与报告(英文版第3版)》旨在为撰写实
验报告和设计实验提供具体的指导。
本书共分两编,第一编围绕如何撰写实验报告而
展开,详略得当地介绍了报告的每个主要组成部分,
指出了各部分在撰写中应该注意的问题,并根据最新
版的《APA论文写作与发表规范》,提供了相应的实
验示例。第二编是关于实验设计与统计方法的内容。
就心理学研究中经常采用的几种实验设计方法以及相
关的统计方法做出了概要的介绍和评价,介绍了学生
在日常学习中容易忽视,但却非常重要的两个概念:
效力和效应大小;同时对报告中如何呈现图、表的问
题进行了具体说明。
《心理学实验的设计与报告》(第3版)与前两版
相比,在每一章都增加了新的小节,补充了新的内容
,使内容更加丰富详实,更具操作性和指导性。
本书既可作为心理学、教育学等社会科学研究专
业的学生的教科书,也可作为研究人员在设计实验和
撰写研究报告时的参考书。


目录: Contents of the Web site
Preface
To students
How to use this book
To tutors
Part 1 Writing reports
1 Getting started
1.1 Experienced students, inexperienced students,
and the report
1.2 Writing the report
1.3 The importance of references in text
1.4 The practical report and the research paper
1.5 Finding references for your INTRODUCTION
1.5.1 How to structure your reading and what
to look for
1.5.2 Generating potential references
1.5.3 Locating the references
1.5.4 Rubbish and temptation on the Internet
1.6 Ethics
1.7 The rest of the book and the book's Web site
2 The INTRODUCTION section
2.1 The first part of the INTRODUCTION: reviewing the
background to your study
2.2 Inexperienced students, experienced students,
and the INTRODUCTION
2.3 Your own study
3 The METHOD section
3.1 The DESIGN subsection
3.2 The PARTICIPANTS subsection
3.3 The APPARATUS or MATERIALS subsection
3.4 The PROCEDURE subsection
3.5 Interacting with and instructing participants
3.6 Optional additional subsections of the METHOD
3.6.1 Pilot test
3.6.2 Ethical issues
3.6.3 Statistical power
3.7 Writing a METHOD when your study is not
an experiment
4 The RESULTS section
4.1 Describing the data: descriptive statistics
4.2 Analysing the data: inferential statistics
4.3 An example RESULTS section
4.4 Nine tips to help you avoid common mistakes in
your RESULTS section
4.5 Rejecting or not rejecting the null hypothesis
4.6 Reporting specific statistics
4.6.1 Chi-square, Z2
4.6.2 Spearman rank correlation coefficient (rho), rs
4.6.3 Pearson's product moment correlation
coefficient, r
4.6.4 Mann-Whitney U test, U
4.6.5 Wilcoxon's Matched-Pairs Signed-Ranks Test, T
4.6.6 Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance, H
4.6.7 Friedman's ANOVA, ;(2r
4.6.8 The independent t test, t
4.6.9 The related t test, t
4.6.10 Analysis of variance (ANOVA), F
4.6.11 Four tips to help you avoid common mistakes
when reporting ANOVA
4.6.12 Linear regression
4.6.13 Statistics of effect size
4.7 What you can find on the book's Web site
4.8 What you can find in the statistics textbooks
paired with this book
5 The DISCUSSION section
5.1 How well do the findings fit the predictions
5.2 What do the findings mean
5.3 What are the implications of these findings
5.4 What to do when you have been unable to
analyse your data properly
5.5 External validity: the generalizability of findings
5.6 Six tips to help you to avoid some common
failings in the DISCUSSION
5.7 Two example DISCUSSION sections
5.7.1 The cheese and nightmare experiment
5.7.2 The mnemonic experiment
5.8 Writing a DISCUSSION when your study is not
an experiment
6 The TITLE and ABSTRACT
6.1 The TITLE
6.2 The ABSTRACT
7 REFERENCES and APPENDICES
7.1 The REFERENCES section
7.2 General rules for the REVERENCES section
7.3 An example REFERENCES section
7.4 Key to the example REFERENCES section
7.5 Electronic references
7.5.1 Published material obtained electronically
7.5.2 Unpublished material obtained electronically
7.6 Appendices
8 Producing the final version of the report
8.1 Writing style
8.2 Definitions and abbreviations
8.3 References in the text
8.3.1 Using et al. properly
8.3.2 Quotations and plagiarism
8.4 Tables and figures
8.5 Graphing data
8.5.1 One IV with two levels
8.5.2 Error bars
8.5.3 One IV with more than two levels
8.5.4 More than one IV
8.5.5 Tips to help you produce better graphs
8.6 Drafting the report
8.7 Producing the final version
Check list for report writing
What the marker is looking for
Mistakes to avoid
Part 2 Design and statistics
9 Experiments, correlation and description
9.1 Experimenting
9.1.1 The experiment
9.1.2 Experimental and control conditions
9.1.3 Control: eliminating confounding variables
9.1.4 Experimental and null hypotheses
9.1.5 More on controlling variables
9.2 Correlation
9.3 Description
Consolidating your learning
10 Basic experimental design
10.1 Unrelated and related samples independent
variables
10.2 Other names for unrelated and related samples
independent variables
10.3 Deciding whether to use related or unrelated
samples
10.4 Related samples
10.4.1 Advantages
10.4.2 Disadvantages
10.4.3 Controlling for order effects
10.5 Principal alternatives to related samples
10.6 Unrelated samples
10.6.1 Advantages
10.6.2 Disadvantages
10.6.3 Ways around these disadvantages
10.7 Matching participants
10.8 External validity
10.9 Internal validity
10.10 Ethics: The self-esteem and well-being of
your participants
10.10.1 Informed consent
10.10.2 Debriefing your participants
10.10.3 Studies on the Internet
10.10.4 Data confidentiality
Consolidating your learning
11 Statistics: significance testing
11.1 Inferential statistics
11.2 Testing for statistical significance
11.3 Type I and type II errors
11.4 Choosing a statistical test
11.5 Two-tailed and one-tailed tests
11.6 Testing for statistical significance: summary of the
procedure
Consolidating your learning
12 Statistics: effect size and power
12.1 Effect size
12.2 Power
12.2.1 Estimating power
12.2.2 Increasing the power of our experiments
12.3 Effect size and power: reporting and interpreting
findings
12.3.1 Reporting for those who do not know how to
calculate power or effect size statistics
12.3.2 Reporting for those who have been taught how to
calculate power or effect size statistics
Consolidating your learning
13 More advanced experimental design
13.1 Extending the number of levels on the
independent variable
13.1.1 Unrelated samples IVs
13.1.2 Related samples IVs
13.2 Experimental designs with two or more independent
variables
13.3 Labelling designs that have two or more independent
variables
13.4 Main effects of independent variables
13.5 Statistical interactions
13.6 Analysing designs involving two or more IVs
13.7 Graphing statistical interactions
13.8 Watch out for "IVs" that are not true independent
variables
13.9 Some tips to help you to design better experiments
and write better reports
13.9.1 The basic rule
13.9.2 Getting reliable measures of the dependent variable
13.9.3 Pilot testing
13.9.4 The post-experimental interview
13.9.5 Check and screen your data prior to statistical
analysis
13.10 Above all, randomize properly
Consolidating your learning
Commentary
Recommended reading
Appendix 1: Confusing predictions from the null hypothesis with those
from the experimental hypothesis
Appendix 2: Randomizing
Appendix 3: How to use tables of critical values of inferential statistics
Answers to SAQs
Answers to diagnostic questions
References
Index of concepts

媒体评论: ★《心理学实验的设计与报告》语言简练,易读易懂,对学生在撰写研究报告过程中所遇到的实际问题给出了操作性很强的指导,可作为我国高等院校心理学专业学生(包括本科生和研究生)的教材或教学参考书,也可作为心理学工作者撰写心理学研究报告(或论文)的参考手册。
——沈模卫
浙江大学心理与行为科学系教授、博导、系主任

书摘:

  When you ?rst signed up for a psychology course, the chances arethat you did not really expect what was coming, particularly the emphasis on methodology and statistics. For some of you this may have been a pleasant surprise. For most, however, it will undoubtedly have been a shock to the system. No doubt in other parts of your course you will examine critically academic psychology’s scienti?c aspirations. My task in this book is to help you as best I can to face up to one of its major consequences for you. This is the prominence given in many psychology courses to doing practical work (especially experimenting) and the requirement in most instances to write up at least some of this work in the form of a highly structured and disciplined practical report.
  All a report is (really) is the place in which you tell the story of your study; what you did, why you did it, what you found out in the process, and so on. In doing this you are more like an ancient storyteller, whose stories were structured by widely recognized and long-established conventions, than a modern novelist who is free to dictate form as well as content. Moreover, like the storytellers of old, although our will invariably be telling your story to someone who knows quite a bit about it already, you are expected to present it as if it had never been heard before. This means that you will need to spell out the details and assume little knowledge of the area on the part of your audience. The nature of your story – the things that you have to talk about is revealed in Box 1.1.
  1 What you did
  2 Why you did it
  3 How you did it
  4 What you found (including details of how you analysed the data)
  5 What you think it shows
  Box 1.1 The information you should provide in your practical report.
  Title
  Abstract
  Introduction
  Method
  Results
  Discussion
  References
  Appendices (if any)
  Box 1.2 The sections of the practical report.
  Our ?rst clue as to the nature of the conventions governing the report comes with a glance at its basic structure. The report is in sections, and these sections (by and large) follow an established sequence. What this means is that, in the telling, your story needs to be cut up into chunks: different parts of the story should appear in different places in the report. The typical sequence of the sections appears in Box 1.2.
  ……

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